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Additional documents of interest

  • Successful Business Continuity - Part 1 - Users and Groups
    This article was published in the April 2005 issue of AIX Update magazine and discusses system administration needs and requirements oriented around users and groups. The overall emphasis of this series of articles is for implementation of enterprise wide unique identifiers for a variety of parameters, such as user names, group names, UID and GID numbers.
  • Successful Business Continuity - Part 2 - Machine and Host Names
    This article was published in the May 2005 issue of AIX Update magazine and discusses naming structures for machines, systems, adapters, and aliases. The overall emphasis of this series of articles is for implementation of enterprise wide unique identifiers for a variety of parameters.
  • Successful Business Continuity - Part 3 - Volume Names
    This article was published in the December 2005 issue of AIX Update magazine and discusses naming structures for volume groups, logical volumes, log logical volumes, directory mount points, etc. The overall emphasis of this series of articles is for implementation of enterprise wide unique identifiers for a variety of parameters.
  • Successful Business Continuity - Part 4 - MQ Series, Startup/Shutdown Scripts, Error Processing
    This article was published in the April 2006 issue of AIX Update magazine and discusses how to implement AIX in an environment dedicated to business continuity. The topic of this article is the assignment of MQ Series queue names and aliases, resource group startup and shutdown script names (Application startup/shutdown script names), error logging, and error notification.
  • Successful Business Continuity - Part 5 - Miscellaneous topics
    This article was published in the August 2006 issue of AIX Update magazine and discusses how to implement AIX in an environment dedicated to business continuity. A variety of topics is discussed in this article including automated documentation generation and management.
  • Automated Microcode Management System
    One of the most difficult administration tasks in an AIX environment is attempting to keep the firmware and microcode up-to-date. Mt Xia has devised an automated method of gathering the Microcode information, determining which microcode needs to be updated, generating reports, and uploading the required microcode updates to each individual system.
  • Calculating the size of a Virtual Processor
    This document describes the algorithms used to calculate the size of a virtual processor when using shared processors in an LPAR. The IBM documentation describes how to calculate CPU utilization, NOT how to size for configuration, this document clarifies this process. A description of the HMC input fields for the processor tab is included.
  • Basics of Partition Load Manager Setup
    This presentation was provided by Ron Barker from IBM regarding the PLM Basic setup.
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    Data Center Automation


    Data Center Automation (DCA) consists of the processes and procedures implemented in a data center environment for the purpose of automating day-to-day activities. These activities will be those performed normally by system administrators, operators, programmers, and users.

    The fundamental purpose of utilizing computers is automation, however computers rarely simplify or expedite the initial gathering of data, in fact the opposite is usually true. A computing environment provides the power to be able to easily manipulate the data once it has been gathered, and to automate processes based on this data.

    When analyzing processes for automation in a data center environment the following question must be asked first: Will automating this process save or generate revenue? If not, then it is not a candidate for automation. Implementing technology solutions in a business scenario only for the sake of technology itself, is a waste of time, energy, and resources. If no monetary benefit is realized, then it is of no benefit to the business. In a non-business scenario, the requirement of "monetary benefit" may be overridden by research or scientific curiosity, but is still a question that should be asked.

    It is the duty and responsibility of all persons within an organization who utilize computing resources to identify and document those procedures and processes that are candidates for automation. As previously stated, in a business scenario, candidates for automation are any activity that will generate or increase monetary benefits by automation, and is repeated more than once. Priority for assigning resources to automate an activity is determined by how often it is performed and the expected benefits.

    System deployment, configuration, and implementation

    Numerous software application packages exist to automatically provide system deployment, configuration, and implementation. These packages are typically large and work across heterogenous platforms and environments.

    High Availability deployment, configuration, and implementation

    High availability is typically an automated process for minimizing business function downtime associated with planned or unplanned outages. Typically utilizes replicated hardware platforms to eliminate single points of failure. The business function fail-over normally occurs between two or more physical frames within the same data center using a single shared storage system.

    • Elimination of single points of failure (SPOF's) are a necessary part of HA.
    • The goal is to minimize downtime for business functions, not systems.
    • This is NOT non-stop computing, downtime will be experienced during fail over.

    Disaster Recovery deployment, configuration, and implementation

    Disaster Recovery (DR) is the implementation of a project plan which describes the tasks necessary to recover critical business functions after a disaster. The recovery occurs between geographically separated data centers using one or more methods of storage replication between the data centers. The initial implementation of a DR plan is normally a manual process that requires management declaration of a disaster, however subsequent DR processes may be automated.

    In the context of data center automation, the generation of a disaster recovery plan should be an automated process, or mostly automated. Unfortunately, this is typically not the case. In most instances, the DR plan is written and manually maintained by system administrators, application administrators, and other technical personnel.

    Business Continuity compliance, configuration, and implementation

    Business continuity consists of the activities performed on a daily basis to ensure the business operates normally today, tomorrow, and beyond. The business continuity plan may be thought of as a methodology, or as an enterprise wide mentality of conducting day-to-day business.

    Network resources allocation and deallocation

    For the purpose of data center automation, allocation of network resources, such as IP addresses, must be programmable. This requires that available network addresses be stored in dynamic locations or databases that are accessible by other automated processes, such as system deployment and configuration. This also requires that node names, host names, and aliases be automatically generated on an as needed basis and name resolution services be automatically updated with this information.

    Storage resources allocation and deallocation

    When automatically deploying new systems as part of data center automation, this requires storage for operating systems and application be available for allocation. Automating these storage allocations and deallocations requires a Storage Area Network (SAN) with a programmable interface such as scripts, or API's.

    Dynamic CPU and Memory allocation and deallocation

    Most of today's modern systems provide capabilities to dynamically allocate and deallocation hardware resources such as CPU and Memory. Automating these changes requires a programmable interface such as scripts or API's to the hardware management system. Furthermore, in modern data center environments, change control must be employed before modifications are implemented, therefore change requests must be automatically submitted and approvals transmitted back to the hardware management system. Once approvals are received, the automated hardware change can proceed.

    Process Scheduling

    Assuming heterogenous environments, data center automation requires a cross-platform process scheduling system that can start processes on a node, detect when the process is complete, and make decisions regarding the next step (and process) in a sequence of data processing procedures. These platforms may include mainframe, Unix, MS-Windows, and a wide variety of others.

    Performance Monitoring

    Performance monitoring and notification is a fundamental piece of data center automation. Many problem avoidance procedures can be automatically implemented based on performance information. This information is also critical to determining service level agreement compliance. Notification of performance issue that cannot be automatically resolved can be forwarded to the appropriate personnel for further review.

    Error detection and problem resolution

    Monitoring of system and application error logs provides a foundation for automated problem resolution.

    Security Management

    User authentication and authorization is one of the most time consuming activities in any large computing environment. Many tools exist to automate these processes in heterogenous environments, however it is still a very difficult task. Once a solution is implemented by an organization, an enterprise wide policy must be adopted that requires all subsequent systems and applications to utilize and integrate into the selected solution. Non-compliance must require executive management approval.

    Document Management

    In a data center automation environment, technical personnel should not be spending their time writing system documentation and procedures. The primary reason is because the documentation will always be obsolete or incomplete. Instead system documentation and procedures should be automatically generated on a periodic basis to ensure they are current and complete.

    Change Management

    Any large data center environment will require change requests to be submitted and approved before any planned work is performed. To support data center automation principles, the change request system must accept input programmatically through scripts, API's, email, or some other mechanism that can be generated from the systems themselves, rather than by a human.

    Audit Management

    In support of data center automation concepts, audit compliance must be achievable through automated mechanisms, at least from the technical support personnel's perspective. Toolsets should be implemented with the ability to respond to audit requests via a "self-service" interface which grants access to audit information only to authorized auditors. This relieves the technical support staff from having to gather, format, and provide this information to numerous different auditors, several times a year.

    Service Level Agreements

    The Service Level Agreement (SLA) is an agreement between a business function owner and the service provider which designates the amount of time, on an annualized basis, the business function will be available. Conversely, the SLA also designates the amount of time, on an annualized basis, for which the business function will NOT be available. The SLA's are utilized in data center automation to schedule maintenance, updates, upgrades, etc., and every system in the data center must have an associated SLA in order for it to participate in the automated scheduling of services. This includes test, development, and sandbox systems.


    Virtual Logical Partition Automated Robot


    The vLPAR® appliance fully automates the deployment and configuration of entire multi-system, multi-data center computing environments including business continuity, disaster recovery, high availability, and virtualization.

    Mt Xia is partnered with TriParadigm to deliver automated solutions for deploying business continuity (BC), disaster recovery (DR), high availability (HA), and virtualization (VIO) as a consumer commodity. This packaged solution called vLPAR® is sold by TriParadigm as an appliance that can plug directly into your datacenter and reduce your administration costs by 75%. vLPAR® can also increase your profits by fully implementing IBM Power 5/6/7 architectures and over-subscribing available hardware resources to multiple customers, thus maximizing your return-on-investment (ROI).

    The business continuity methodology developed by Mt Xia and TriParadigm, and implemented by vLPAR® is characterized by a "build once, run anywhere" mentality. This phrase is meant to illustrate the concept of "containerized" business functions, where all resources related to supporting a business function are grouped together in such a way as to be able to run on any compatible system, in any datacenter, anywhere in the world.

    Each component and piece of a containerized business function is constructed using enterprise wide unique identifiers so that naming and numbering conflicts are eliminated, thus enabling the "build once, run anywhere" mentality. In fact, this concept enables multiple containers to run simultaneously on the same system, which is a common practice when implementing a disaster recovery plan. In disaster recovery operations, production systems are typically consolidated onto a single system in the disaster recovery environment.

    With vLPAR®, a datacenter operator has the ability to offer it's customers, on-demand disaster recovery / high availability clusters, or standalone systems, in real-time, all generated by the customer from a simple web based interface.

    For a customer to create their own BC/DR/HA/VIO solutions, they only need to complete one simple web form. Their request is automatically processed and system(s) are created in a matter of minutes, they are notified upon completion and provided with a login name and password to a fully functional cluster of systems. (DR/HA).

    vLPAR® is a true on-demand computing solution delivered as a consumer commodity providing BC/DR/HA/VIO and standardized SLA's.

    vLPAR® Press Release

    vLPAR® provides and fully implements all of the following features:

    • Consumer oriented web based interface to automatically create in real-time:
      • Disaster Recovery / High Availability multi-node clusters
      • High Availability multi-node clusters
      • Standalone systems
    • Real-time creation/configuration of all systems
      • Eliminates wasted resources sitting idle waiting for customer
    • Real-time automated creation/configuration of automated high availabilty
    • Real-time automated creation/configuration of disaster recovery resources
    • Real-time automated creation/configuration of business continuity structures
    • CPU Micropartitioning
    • Dynamic resizing of CPU resources based on system load
    • Dynamic resizing of Memory resources based on system load
    • Redundant access to storage
    • Redundant access to networking
    • "Build once, run anywhere" business continuity design structure
    • Disaster recovery failover to any location
    • High availability failover to another hardware platform
    • Virtualized I/O resources with redundant connections
    • Standardized Service Level Agreements (SLA)
    • Standardized system structure based on service level agreement
    • State-of-the-Art policies, guidelines, standards, and procedures
    • Automatically generated disaster recovery documentation
    • Automatically generated high availability cluster documentation
    • Automatically generated manual fail-over documentation

    Additional packages integrated into vLPAR:

    • Orwell Disaster Recovery System (Mt Xia, et al)
    • AMMS - Automated Microcode Management System (Mt Xia)
    • OpenCMDB - Web based Configuration Management Database (Open Source)
    • Automated IP address allocation and management (Mt Xia)
    • Automated Documentation generator (Mt Xia)
    • Automated Web based documentation management (Mt Xia)
    • kshAuth - Web based authorization and authentication system (Mt Xia)
    • VIOS - VIO Server - Virtual I/O Server (IBM)
    • HMC - Hardware Management Console (IBM)
    • NIM - Network Installation Manager (IBM)
    • HACMP - High Availability Clustered Multi-Processing (IBM)
    • PLM - Partition Load Manager (IBM)
    • WLM - Work Load Load Manager (IBM)
    • DDNS - Dynamic DNS - Dynamic Domain Name Service (Open Source)

    Click here for a high level slide presentation describing vLPAR features and functions.

    Click here for screen shots and animations of vLPAR client LPAR creation procedures.


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