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test(1) test(1) NAME test, [ - Evaluates conditional expressions SYNOPSIS test expression [ expression ] DESCRIPTION The test command evaluates an expression constructed of functions and operators. If the value of expression is true, test returns an exit value of 0 (zero); otherwise, it returns a nonzero (false) exit value. The test command also returns a nonzero exit value if there are no arguments. The alternate form of the command surrounds expression with [ ] (brackets). When you use this form, you must surround the brackets with spaces. The test Expressions All of the listed functions and operators are separate arguments to test. The following functions are used to construct expression: -r file TRUE if file exists and has read permission. -w file TRUE if file exists and has write permission. -x file TRUE if file exists and has execute permission. -f file TRUE if file exists and is a regular file. -d file TRUE if file exists and is a directory. -e file TRUE if file exists. -c file TRUE if file exists and is a character-special file. -b file TRUE if file exists and is a block-special file. -p file TRUE if file exists and is a named pipe (FIFO). -h file TRUE if file exists and is a soft link. Synonym for -L. -L file TRUE if file exists and is a soft link. Synonym for -h. -u file TRUE if file exists and its set-user ID bit is set. -g file TRUE if file exists and its set-group ID bit is set. -k file TRUE if file exists and its sticky bit is set. -s file TRUE if file exists and has a size greater than 0 (zero). -t [file_descriptor] TRUE if the open file with file descriptor number file_descriptor (1 by default) is associated with a terminal device. -z string1 TRUE if the length of string1 is 0 (zero). -n string1 TRUE if the length of string1 is nonzero. string1 = string2 TRUE if string1 and string2 are identical. string1 and string2 are not identical. string1 is not the null string. number1 -eq number2 TRUE if the integers number1 and number2 are algebraically equal. Any of the comparisons -ne, -gt, -ge, -lt, and -le can be used in place of -eq. The listed functions can be combined with the following operators: ! Unary negation operator. -a Binary AND operator. -o Binary OR operator (-a has higher precedence than -o). \( expression \) Parentheses for grouping. EXAMPLES 1. To test whether a file exists and is not empty, enter: if test ! -s "$1" then echo $1 does not exist or is empty. fi If the file specified by the first positional parameter to the shell procedure does not exist, this displays an error message. If $1 exists, it displays nothing. Note that there must be a space between -s and the filename. The double quotes around $1 ensure that the test will work properly even if the value of $1 is the empty string. If the double quotes are omitted and $1 is the empty string, test displays the error message test: parameter expected. 2. To do a complex comparison, enter: if [ $# -lt 2 -o ! -s "$1" ] then exit fi If the shell procedure was given fewer than two positional parameters or the file specified by $1 does not exist, then this exits the shell procedure. The special shell variable $# represents the number of positional parameters entered on the command line that started this shell procedure. EXIT VALUES The test command evaluates expression and, if its value is TRUE, returns an exit value of 0; otherwise, it returns a nonzero (FALSE) exit value; the test command also returns a nonzero exit value if there are no arguments. RELATED INFORMATION Commands: csh(1), find(1), ksh(1), sh(1).